According to the Russian think tank INDEM:
- [T]he Russian state itself is "the country's biggest racketeer", with the shadow economy at least twice as large as the state budget.
The report says any interaction between citizens and the country's bureaucracy will inevitably involve corruption in the form of paying bribes.
Commerce and business are the worst affected areas, the think-tank says ...
Its annual report on corruption says that bribes paid to officials by businessmen may have grown as much as 10 times over the last four years alone.
The report estimates the total value of such bribes as 2.5 times the whole national state budget.
Among the most corrupt institutions, the report identifies education - where parents may buy university places for their children - and the army, where young people and their families pay to avoid military service.
Whole article here.